Learn, Do, Advance, Iterate

  • Each learning can have parent and children learning
  • This system treats each invocation and learning as an update to the whole system
  • A big learning project should be broken down by first principle into individual sublearnings and depth first adaptation should happen.
    • Don’t treat projects as projects treat them as learnings. Each learning creates something new. But each learning is broken down into smaller tasks.
  • Eat or be eaten.
    • As you learn and do you may get resistance from other people who may say what you are doing is dumb or stupid or try to thwart you.
    • It is important that you realize this and prevent those people from holding you back.
      • The most important person who may be holding you back is yourself.
  • Have high standards for yourself and others, but make sure that you have a path to get to those high standards.
    • Figure out where people are and get them to aim higher.
  • Every learning must have a deadline, things without deadlines will be endless and pointless so we need deadlines to focus on what is important to learn and do. If you don’t have a timeframe you can end up learning forever, but the goal is to learn and do and for that you need timeframes.
  • As you move quicker through this loop they increase to create new feedback loops in a tree like function. Some of the feedbacks loops fail but overall the experiments lead to a 2^n growth. The problem being it takes a lot of effort to change these feedback cycles as they get to a maxima of efficiency. Examples include Facebook and google being thrown into promoting bad govts etc.
  • Practice Kaizen
    • Constantly improve over time making small changes to be better. Those small changes affect things over time.
  • Treat your growth in terms of Compounded Interest. You want to be 1% better everyday.
    • $$P[(1+i)^n -1]$$
    • So if you get better everyday you get 37% better from where you are now.
    • If you look at the growth you will notice that just getting better for 100 days will make you 2.7% better, 200 → 7.3%, 300 → 19.8%. The more consistent you are the better that compounding makes you.
    • Try getting 1% better everyday. Try to attain good habits. Even if you fail attempt to get back into the grove of things by working on them. Small changes over time cascade into bigger changes.
Days1% Every Day-1% Every Day
1002.7% Better0.0037
2007.3% Better0.0013
30019.8% Better0.0005
36537% Better0.0003


  • I learn by going where I have to go. -Fortune Cookie
  • As you move through life your priorities and projects change and what mattered before has less importance now.
  • However, at any point in life you must constantly be improving: for yourself, your spouse/partner, your friends and family, society.
  • Pick projects that are worthwhile and push your limit and learn them.
  • Create mental models from different subjects so that each new thing you learn becomes that much easier.
  • Learning should stretch you in someway. Shouldn’t be comfortable but there
  • Should be some fear, no fear no growth
  • Time bound
    • Certain things need to be learned now and other things can wait years.
    • Prioritize by time
  • Before you start learning make an outline of what you know.
    • As you start learning fill in the gaps and create the other parts you don’t know.
  • Before you start a project write a short essay describing the vision for learning the subject. It should answer the following:
    • What you want to learn?
    • What specific things you want to learn about the subject?
    • How learning this will create leverage for you in terms of personal life, business, etc?
    • How will you apply this knowledge into the world?
    • What a good metric for successfully learning this subject looks like?
  • Know your style of learning.
    • Are you a reader, watcher, writer, listener?
    • Each style requires a different paradigm or medium that you should use.


  • Just as eating cow meat doesn’t turn you into a cow, studying philosophy doesn’t make you wiser.
  • – The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms
  • Learning for the sake of learning won’t fulfill you.
    • You must apply your knowledge to the real world.
  • What you learn on paper and on the screen won’t be much benefit if you don’t bring it into the world.
  • A lot of mental anguish is having learned but never getting the chance to apply.
    • More education will not bring you joy if you can’t apply what you have learned.
  • Figure out how to apply what you learned: teach it, write about it, code it, make it, build it.
  • Systematize it. Figure out the patterns and codify those patterns.
    • If you do something once it is okay to do it manually
    • If you do it n times then you need to come up with a system a checklist or automation that makes it so you don’t have to think about it when doing the task.
  • When Doing Things You can follow the OODA loop or any other method for rapidly learning and improving on something.
    • The Do part can take hours or years, it is dependent on the level of mastery you want to achieve.
    • But when Doing, you want to split what you want into individual cycles that form a chunks using First Principles / Continuous Improvement
  • Do a project
    • Update procedures to try out an experiment.
    • Somehow use the learning to change behavior.
  • These are the individual tasks that you may track in a system like jira
  • Deliberate practice to get better
  • Unlearning is just as important as learning, when you learn something you will find things that no longer fit and you have to unlearn these things.
  • Learn broadly but do sparingly
    • It makes sense to learn something to understand how it works but it usually makes sense to have others do the actual task unless the goal is to do this professionally.
    • This comes down to energy and time: Can’t do everything well and we need to focus on the few things that will give us the most benefit and most leverage.
    • When you learn something you understand better what someone can do and holes in your knowledge if they are good and can explain the things that you have missed.
  • Leverage
    • How do you take what you learned and create leverage in terms of what you want to achieve. This is a big part of learning is you have to have it create leverage in other parts of what you do. This leverage should compound the more you do it.
    • Learning is about creating leverage in a certain area.
  • Doing something requires a trade off from something else. So make sure you want to actively Pursue this as part of your long term goals


  • “Burn the Ships” -Alexander the Great’s orders to his troops upon reaching Asia Minor
  • If want to advance you need to commit to the change, with full force.
    • This will force an outcome
    • And will surface the mistakes and unintended consequences.
    • What the obstacles are in your way
  • If you can’t advance then figure out what skin in the game you will put to advance.
    • Sometimes, to advance you have to give it all up.
    • Don’t make a backup plan, unless you absolutely need to or it is part of your job to do so
  • When you advance also note if it is going toward your goals and vision of your life.
    • No need to advance toward something that won’t bring you happiness.
  • Stretch Yourself
  • When advancing you will run into mistakes these need to be kept somewhere as these are learning points to advance.
  • Course Correct. What knowledge are you missing?
  • Every quarter figure out how to level up your life. You need to figure out how to advance and improve.
  • Plan for where you want to be and work backwards


Most zealously I seek for erudition: Much do I know—but to know all is my ambition. – Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

  • Use the outcomes to iterate the learning
    • The learn loop is a part of a tree.
    • Figure out the next learn steps based on your learning
    • The outcomes may affect other areas create learn cycles there
    • The outcome may also kill off some leafs and branches.
  • Note: Evolution has consequences. What you do and advance to can affect you or your organization. Think of how different a gorilla and human are, both similar DNA but completely different outcome.
  • You can’t do everything, so do you want to advance at a particular juncture?
    • In business hiring someone can be a way to create a more effective learning instead of you doing it yourself.
  • Figure out what the next difficult challenge is.
    • How can you broaden your horizon, do even more difficult thing than before?
    • Be weary of moving laterally in a project, career, etc.
    • Figure out what the obstacles are
  • Figure out who is putting roadblocks in your way to achieve the next steps.
    • You may have to address this issue.
  • All skills are a series of levels, and each skill is a series of subskills, and so forth.
    • How can you level up and down on each of these?
  • Go back to Learn, with a larger goal or action.
  • If you stumble figure out where you stumbled, figure out how to correct or fix that mistake.
  • Sometimes you have to stop the iteration as it hits its logical end.


  • We may be good workers in the field of choice we choose to be in but we struggle with helping or affecting the bigger picture.
  • At some point you realize that you want something more and you don’t have the tools to do it.
  • The destination is never as fun as the journey.
    • Once we arrive our brains lose interest and we are back to our baseline happiness.
    • So it is better to constantly evolve, as that is the only thing that is worth anything.
  • A person who has stopped evolving is already dead, they just don’t know it yet.
    • What they are now would be no different from what they are the moment they die.
  • I thought that there were certain things I would always be interested in and though that is true to a certain extent I already realized that I needed a general framework for things I don’t know I will be interested in, things I want to like but have no idea how.
  • After reading a bunch over what other people have tried to achieve, what their goals were and how they did it, it seems all people go through a certain trajectory.
    • Learn and Do
    • We learn something and do it, that is what school teaches us.
  • However, what most of us don’t do is advance. When we “Do” we get stuck or move laterally. While this is all good and well, it is easy to get bored and disoriented when all we are doing is moving laterally through life.
    • So we need a new framework for learning.
    • Learn, Do, Advance, Iterate
      • Learn
        • We want to get a new job, want to learn a new skillset, want to move our life and relationships in a new directions. First we need to learn and understand what it is that we are even asking and get an understanding.
      • Do
        • We then need to make small adjustments to test out our hypothesis and iterate until we feel comfortable with this new learning, but with an end date in mind. We can’t be stuck in the same tasks forever.
      • Advance
        • We then need to commit and advance our position, this means going from that which is comfortable to that which is uncomfortable. This may mean taking a job that has more responsibility, starting a company, adjusting or leaving relationships with people who are holding you back, and forcing new outcomes.
      • Iterate
        • When you commit and advance you have a whole new set of mistakes, and outcomes that you have to learn from. This should set a trigger of a new tree to learning.
  • What is interesting about this framework is that it works for both individuals and teams.
    • It depends on how you handle the learning.
  • When starting something ask what other thing it will take away from

  • Did you read a book for 15 minutes today?
  • Are you reading outside of your comfort zone?

Collect Your Mistakes / Gaps in Knowledge

  • Log every mistake you made
  • Log gaps in your knowledge
  • Log potential future issues that you will face
  • It is better to make mistakes and learn upon those.
    • Mistakes are gaps are one part of advancing, the second part is figuring out the gap in knowledge.


  • First principles thinking is one of the best ways to reverse-engineer complicated situations and unleash creative possibility. Sometimes called reasoning from first principles, it’s a tool to help clarify complicated problems by separating the underlying ideas or facts from any assumptions based on them. What remains are the essentials. If you know the first principles of something, you can build the rest of your knowledge around them to produce something new.
  • 🔗
  • Break down complex ideas into fundamental concepts that stand alone, then build them back up again. First Principles are atomic, universally true statements that don’t need to be broken down any further. First Principles thinking is used to:
    • understand complex ideas at a foundational level
    • identify blind spots and incorrect assumptions
    • see connections and patterns between different ideas.
  • First Principles thinking was recently popularized by Elon Musk, but in truth, the technique has been around for thousands of years. It’s especially useful when trying to think creatively or innovatively. Many mental models are First Principles. For example, Alignment is a framework of First Principles that apply to all mechanical aspects of Jiu-Jitsu. To apply First Principles thinking in Jiu-Jitsu:
    • Choose a technique or concept you want to critique or better understand.
    • Break that technique down into its First Principles: the universally true statements that require no further explanation. Breaking it down into the mental models on this website is a good starting point.
    • Identify whether this technique conflicts with any First Principles. If this happens, you have encountered an issue with the technique where the reasoning behind its execution may be faulty.
    • Identify whether you have discovered any new First Principles that are required to explain this technique.
    • Rebuild the technique from the ground up in your mind, understanding how it is composed of First Principles.
    • Use your understanding of this technique’s First Principles to identify if there are any patterns between this technique and others.
  • Here’s an example of how an armbar can be understood using First Principles thinking:Breaking Mechanics: The armbar is a linear break.Isolate a Single Target: Pulling your opponent’s arm away from the rest of his body facilitates the armbar and reduces his/her ability to defend and move.Overwhelming Force: Applying breaking force with your arms is not sufficient. You need to use your entire body.Anatomic Hierarchy: In particular, you need to use your core and legs, which are stronger than your arms.Limb Coiling: Generate breaking power by keeping your butt and feet pinched tight against your opponent. Break your opponent’s limb coil by pulling his arm free of the rest of his body.Rotational Control: Extra torque can be added to the armbar by twisting it rather than pulling it straight back.Theory of Alignment: If applied properly, the armbar breaks your opponent’s posture, structure and base, while you retain all three.Further Study:First Principles: The Building Blocks of True Knowledge – Farnam StreetFirst Principles: Elon Musk on the Power of Thinking for Yourself – James ClearFirst principle – Wikipedia
    • Beginner’s Mind
    • Approach every learning opportunity as if you are a total beginner. Our ego impedes our ability to learn. Absorbing new information is a threat to the ego because it’s an admission that there’s something you didn’t know. The bigger your ego is, the harder it’s going to be to absorb new information. To maximize learning, you should listen, talk, and act like a beginner regardless of your experience level. Unfortunately, experience often leads to ego. It’s sometimes more difficult to impart knowledge to senior students because they see themselves as already knowledgeable, and nobody wants to admit that there are holes in their game. Experienced students have an especially difficult time listening to and learning from the inexperienced. It’s common for colored belts to completely disregard the advice of white belts. This is unfortunate because everybody has something to teach you. It may be true that you know more than the other person, but it is also true that the two of you together know more than either of you individually. To cultivate a Beginner’s Mind, catch and prevent your self from:adding your two cents to a lesson if you’re not adding any valuegetting defensive or angry when someone criticizes your techniquegetting upset when you are dominated during sparringavoiding sparring partners because you think they’ll beat youfeeling the need to explain or defend every decision when you make a mistake or receive feedback.Further Study:Shoshin – Wikipedia
      • 80/20 Rule
      • 80% of the results come from 20% of the effort. The 80/20 rule, also known as the Pareto principle, is a heuristic that tells us we can expect 80% of our results to come from 20% of our efforts. And, of course, this means the reverse is also true: 80% of our efforts lead to only 20% of our results. The 80/20 rule is helpful because it makes us conscious of the things we’re doing that aren’t getting us results. It’s used in many walks of life, including business, economics, and sports. The 80/20 rule applies in Jiu-Jitsu because it tells us to understand which areas of our game are getting us the most results. This is helpful in establishing a gameplan and strategy.Further Study:
        • Pareto principle – Wikipedia
        • The 80/20 Principle: The Secret to Achieving More with Less, by Richard Koch


Rapid Learning

  • Exercise: Creates new neurons for long term learning
  • Travel: Creates new experiences that leads to better processing.


  • Certain books don’t need to be finished. Most of the time if you can get what you want out of 50% or by skimming the book then you should be good.
  • Other books should be savored like a delicious meal.
  • Figure out what level a book is before reading it by skimming it.
    • Sometimes you may be reading a book that just covers something someone else covers and it isn’t that important to get through the whole thing.
  • When reading a book outline it. Then figure out which chapters you will focus your energy on.
    • This will help focus your energy on the relevant chapters. You can skim the rest.
  • Have a list of books and content that you will skim:
    • Pop psych
    • Current events
    • Pop business
    • News

Systems Thinking / First Principle

  • Everything works in systems and as feedback loops.
  • Understanding a system is to take the whole, and keep breaking it into individual parts, and deciding how far you want to break it apart.
    • This results in learning to happen in layers.
    • This means that each layer, adds another dimension.
  • So when learning break things into different levels and layers and remove preconceived notions.
  • Einstellung – being blocked by thinking about a problem in the wrong way.

Principles By Ray Dalio

  • There are multiple levels for all subjects.
  • Be aware on what level you are examining a given subject
  • Consciously examine levels rather than see subjects as undifferentiated pits of facts that can be browsed randomly.

Fixed Mindset vs Growth Mindset

  • Everything we do in life we have a combination of two mindsets called the fixed mindset and growth mindset
You believe in innate ability and intelligenceIf things go south you break downYou believe intelligence is innate and you don’t think putting effort is worth it.You do deliberate practice on the problems you don’t understand until you understand itYou are looking to grow now necessarily be big.You expand and stretch your skillsYou exert a lot of effort
Handling FailureTend to blame other peopleTend to take it to heart and don’t grow from itYou use it as a lessonYou try growing from it
OrganizationalTend to have hero worships, or power of a few heros who provide all the valueMistakes are punishedSetup systems where teams are rewarded as a whole not individualsMistakes are used as a mechanism for learning
RelationshipsSee relationships as people are what they are and can’t changeTake failure as an innate characteristic of the other personSee relationships as growth opportunities for pushing and making each other betterTake failures as a learning lesson to make and improve on self.Communicate and put out into open wants, and goals

Diffused vs Focused

  • The harder you push your brain to come up with something creative, the less creative your ideas will be.
  • Once you are distracted from the problem at hand, the diffuse mode has access and can begin pinging about in its big-picture way to settle on a solution. – Mind for Numbers
DiffusedBrain on AlcoholFocusedBrain on Coffee
Big PictureLike trying to see the elephantNeed to see how things fit into the whole and where each part goesnot pigeon holedSpecificLike seeing individual pieces of an elephantSeeing the individual component and what it providesFlow State Task / Scheduled
Attaining the Statetake a nap but wake up right before getting to sleepshower / bathwalk / exercisebooze and chatdeep focused concentration for up to an hour on just the thing without distractionsdeliberate practice
StuckIf you are stuck on a problem, then your brain needs to head back to a diffused stateTake a walk, sleep, etc. to enter this state.
  • Plan your day around these two states of mind.
  • Start with Diffused to Organize
  • Afternoon of Focused
  • Evening of Diffused

Deliberate Practice

  • To get good you need to practice certain parts more than others.
    • Focused practice on the tasks that you are not good at.
    • This is not fun. You just have to endure the pain to get to the other side.
  • Don’t practice things that you are already good at do things that you suck at.
  • Do spaced repetition to go over things to make the connections in your brain stronger on a certain topic.
    • When learning something the connections break down over time and become less strong so if you go over something after a certain period of time that connections become strong again.

Three-Stage Model of Skill Aquisition

First Principles / Continuous Improvement

  • You must start from First Principles when building something new to figure out how the fuction can be had.
  • But from there you have to continuously improve on that.
  • However, note the Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
    • Sometime it is important to kill the golden goose because there is a new way of doing something.
    • In that case it is okay to go back to First Principle to figure out the underlying components of something and start the continuous improvement cycle again.


  • Use metaphors to think about problems.
  • Understand Lakoffian Metaphors, or put it into simpler terms.

Changing Your Mind

  • Not everything you do fits with data.
  • It is needed that you stay flexible and are able to change your mind about things.

Aim for Success

  • As you learn you may get resistence from other people who may say what you are doing is dumb or stupid.
  • Not everyone will support you because of their jealously or inability or their fixed mindset on how things should be done, but this isn’t your concern since you can’t control what other people think.
  • Don’t mind them, don’t feel like an imposter, aim higher and farther.

Mental Models

Mental Models are common models from different fields that allow you to make decisions.

Gartner Hype Cycle

  • Most technology goes through this.

How to Learn a Subject

Based on this knowledge when you want to learn something and learn it deep you should do the following:

  1. Pick the subject
  2. Get a cursory understanding of the subject
    1. Books
    2. Podcasts
    3. YouTube
    4. Message Famous People and Talk to Them
  3. Pick the next layers. Ask a series of questions that you want to answer from the previous layer. This could be the 2-4 topics that interest you about that subject but mostly I’d say use Pareto’s Principle and pick the 20% that will give 80% of the benefit right away.
    1. Learn each layer by books, media, papers, etc. but have specific deadlines for each since knowledge builds on existing knowledge it may be readily forgotten if the existing knowledge isn’t reaccessed.
      1. Break each thing into individual chunks. If you are learning a new movement example for Krav Maga move to individual pieces: the feet, hips, hands, the movement of the hips, the movement of the legs, where you are on the floor and where you should be. I learn systems for how they fit together.
    2. Note the Following:
      1. Fears (i.e Like the Fear of Formulas)
        1. Need to do this because certain aspect of learning is expanding your comfort level and to do that you need to understand that you may get overwhelmed and have to note the fear of the unknown so that you can work through it.
      2. Mental Models of Similar / Adjacent Subjects
    3. Practice with b in mind.
    4. Apply the new knowledge immediately to a small project. Make it immediately usable and test this with your own hypothesis.
      1. This helps you solidify your understanding
    5. Take what you learned and what you applied and systematize it. Since you applied the learning you have made it your own and that much more influential to yourself.
      1. Write it down as a checklist
      2. Create programs that execute what you learn
    6. Goto 3
  • Remember what layer you are in when reading or learning something. If you read a book similar to what someone has already written then you are not going to learn anything.
    • Most business books all have similar topics and cover an aspect but think layers. Example of how something could be broken down:
      1. Sales
        1. How does Sales Works?
          1. Sales Management
          2. Tools
            1. CRMs
          3. Methods
            1. Segmentation
              1. Personas
            2. Drip Campaigns
              1. Effective Emails
                1. Testing Emails
            3. Cold Calling
              1. Scripts for Cold Calling
                1. Testing Calls
        2. How to Reach People
          1. Behavioral Economics
          2. Segmentation
        3. Closing a Sale
          1. Negotiation
          2. Pitching
          3. Mental Model: improv is similar to sales power dynamics
            1. improv

Learning Fast

Postulates / Learning Fast #postulates

What is it that I already know?Move Medium PostsMove Journal EntriesBook Reviews (This should go for each section as well)Show BookNotes
Learn: How do I learn things quickly so I can attain new skills?First 20 HoursMasteryEssentialismOriginals
Learn: How to read faster?Learn: Skimming10 Days to Reading FasterLearn: Deep ReadingHow to Read a Book
Learn: Who were high performers in their fields who started humbly?Surely You’re Joking, Mr. FeynmanCharlie Munger
Learn: How do I improve my memory to help me with making faster decisions?The Memory Book: The Classic Guide to Improving Your Memory at Work, at School, and at PlayMake it StickUnlimited Memory
Learn: How do I learn a language quickly?Fluent ForeverLearn: How do you learn and use a new language fast?Common PhrasesCommon SentencesLanguagesTeluguSpanishHindiGermanFrench
Learn: How do I explain things simply?Learn: How can I apply metaphors more directly?
Learn: What are the things I want to do with an improved learning?The Well-Educated Mind: A Guide to the Classical Education You Never HadRecite poetry
Learn: How do you do team learning?
Learn: How do mental models influence learning?Superthinking: Upgrade Your Reasoning and Make Better Decisions with Mental Models: Gabriel Weinberg, Lauren McCann: 9780525533580: BooksThe Fifth Discipline by Peter SengeSeeking Wisdom by Peter BevelinPoor Charlie’s Almanack by Charles Munger
  • Philosophy / Classics
    • [ ] Letters from a Stoic
    • Nicomachean Ethics
    • [ ] The Hero with a Thousand Faces
    • [ ] Meditations
    • [ ] Human, All too human
    • [ ] History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides

Mental Models

  • How do I build more Mental Models?
    • Physics
      • [ ] Feynman
      • What is the fundamentals of Physics?
      • Areas I want to focus
        • Electricity
          • Project: Solar Power
            • How to create a effective high power solar power system
        • Thermodynamics
        • Electricity
    • Biology
      • Natural Selection
        • [ ] Origin of Species
        • [ ] Guns, Gems and Steel
    • Music
    • Culture
      • [ ] Orientalism
      • [ ] Fooled By Randomness
      • [ ] Home Deus
    • Systems Thinking
      • How do you break apart problems into components and attack them individually?
      • [ ] Poor Charlie’s Almanac
      • [ ] The Fifth Discipline
      • [ ] Principles
      • [ ] Not For Bread Alone
      • [ ] Thinking in Systems
      • [ ] Out of the Crisis
      • [ ] Fifth Discipline
      • [ ] The Toyota Way
      • [ ] Toyota Production Systems

Peak Performance


  • Fear
    • Stay Calm during stress otherwise you will be using your energy unwisely
    • Limit Caffeine as it causes adrenaline which puts additional stressors in the system.
    • Get a lot of sleep
    • Take notes of your negative talk
    • Breathe
    • Fear is needed as a natural occurance
Learn: What is the fear reaction?Gift of FearBe unstoppable
Learn: What are my reactions when I find fear?StressLearn: How do I manage stress?Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers
Learn: People who lived in fear and did stuff anyways?How do you stay unwavered when you have fear?No easy dayMeditations
Learn: How does sleep affect learning?Why We SleepLearn: How to sleep on a more regular schedule?Do: Sleep by 11pmTry sleep to adjust to 11pm.Move to a sleep
Learn: How do I effectively do deliberate practice?Flow, CsikszentmihalyiPeakHigh Performance Habits: How Extraordinary People Become That Way
Learn: How does food affect learning?
Learn: How does exercise affect learning?SparkBigger Leaner Stronger: The Simple Science of Building the Ultimate Male Body High-Performance Training for SportsUniversity of California Los Angeles, (June 4, 2014), “Poor health, lifestyle factors linked to memory complaints, even among younger adults,” Medical Press.Why is Exercise Good?SparkWhat are different types of exercises?The 4 hour bodyHomeostatisHow does the body adapt to stress?Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers

Learning Template

Figure out exactly what your success looks like for learning? What would you consider success when you learn something?
Do basic research on the field
Find Basic Books on the Topic
Figure out what is needed to learn at 20% that gives 80% of the value
Figure out exactly what is needed to get to that 20% percent
Find the books and information to rapidly learn that 20%
Do the tasks that are needed for that 20%
See if you can improve you want to advance to become more of an expert


Notes from Fluent Forever

Learn the sound of the language

Memorize using pictures and words

Then memorize by making the words meaningful to you

Rote memorization doesn’t work. Use spaces repetition.

After reading something, recall it. And recall it 3 times. When you test your brain with recall it gets a positive boost when it is right. Test immediately after reading.

Spaced Repetition so your brain has time to recall

When we forget something we are essentially starting from scratch so use that time to rebuild a new connection with words, pictures and sounds and your own meaning.

Learn the matching sound pairs of a launguage. Learn the sounds first. By learning the sounds you train your brain to understand what combinations work and you are not doing twice the work that you need to do. You just do the work once

Learn the International Phonetic Alphabet to learn sounds and how to pronounce correctly.

If you are having trouble with a word start from the end and work backward to the beginning. Backchaining

Learn the sounds of the language and the correct way to made the sounds first. Learn how to place your mouth so that you are more effective in saying the words right. Learn this first and the best.

There are about a 1000 words that are the most effective to start speaking. These words enable you to move to higher level concepts. 80/20 rule applied here

Stages of Learning

Unknown incompetence

Known incompetence

Basic competence

Advanced competence

On Writing Well

Need to simplify writing.

Don’t clutter things. No need for a lot of extra words.

Style should be you writing for yourself. You are who you are primarily writing for. Only yourself.

Ask yourself some basic questions before you start. For example: “In what capacity am I going to address the reader?” (Reporter? Provider of information? Average man or woman?) “What pronoun and tense am I going to use?” “What style?” (Impersonal reportorial? Personal but formal? Personal and casual?) “What attitude am I going to take toward the material?” (Involved? Detaced? Judgemental? Ironic? Amused?) “How much do I want to cover?” “What one point do I want to make?”

Choose an overall unity in how you write.

This should not jump between styles. Have a consistent story.

If writing nonfiction leave one idea behind that you give the reader awe the

Mental Models

  • And the past—properly handled, as we will see in the next section—is a much better teacher about the properties of the future than the present. To understand the future, you do not need technoautistic jargon, obsession with “killer apps,” these sort of things. You just need the following: some respect for the past, some curiosity about the historical record, a hunger for the wisdom of the elders, and a grasp of the notion of “heuristics,” these often unwritten rules of thumb that are so determining of survival. In other words, you will be forced to give weight to things that have been around, things that have survived. – Antifragile
  • The bigger your chunked mental library, the more easily you will be able to solve problems. – Mind for Numbers
  • A lot of life is built up around patterns that repeat over and over again.
  • These patterns can create Mental Models that can be used to make decisions quickly and help give you an edge when attempting a certain outcome.
    • They allow you to take different fields and put them together to produce and understand an outcome.
  • The beauty of Mental Models is they can come from anywhere. This makes it pretty important to study and learn broadly from different fields and not get caught up in a maxima of what you know.
    • Sometimes the best ideas come from reading about fields completely unrelated to your own.

mental models

  • Financial decisions
    • cause and effect relationships
    • Second Order Effects
  • Culture
    • certain laws like Moore’s law that dictate change
    • Chaos theory
    • group dynamic vs individual dynamic
    • Power law
    • Pareto principle
    • homeostasis
    • feedback loops
    • broken window theory
    • Antifragility
    • redundancy
    • network effect
    • vis negativa
    • Maslov Hierarchy of Neeeds
    • design patterns
    • architecture patterns
    • Design Patterns
      • Typography
    • story telling
    • civilization and its discontents / Freud
  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Stretch Goals
    • Fixed Mindset vs Growth Mindset
  • Language
    • How different languages affect different cultures.
      • Language both defined and is defined by culture.
      • This has a bearing on how you approach different cultures
  • Travel
  • Biology
    • Evolution
    • Adaptation
  • Behavioral Economics
    • Priming
  • Education
    • Pygmalion Effect
  • Economics
    • creative destruction
    • division of labor
    • diminishing utility
    • Paradox of Choice
    • Disruptive Innovation
    • auctions
    • markerplaces

Systems Thinking

  • throughput
  • bottlenecks
  • adaptability
  • opportunity cost
  • standardization

Computer Science

  • lisp vs c
  • abstraction
  • refactoring
  • contract programming
  • unix way
  • cathedral vs the bazaar
  • Graph Algorithms


  • Asymmetric war/ Blitzkrig / Genghis Khan
  • fighting on multiple fronts (or why to avoid fighting on multiple fronts)
  • Strategies

Team Mental Models

  • First, team members must understand the technology or equipment with which they are interacting. The dynamics and control of the technology and how it interacts with the input of other team members is particularly crucial for team functioning. Second, team members must hold shared job or task models. Such models describe and organize knowledge about how the task is accomplished in terms of procedures, task strategies, likely contingencies or problems, and environmental conditions. Third, team members must hold shared conceptions of how the team interacts. These models describe the roles and responsibilities of team members, interaction patterns, information flow and communication channels, role interdependencies, and information sources. The final model that team members must share is the team member model. This model contains information that is specific to the member’s teammates–their knowledge, skills, attitudes, preferences, strengths, weaknesses, tendencies, and so forth. According to Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995), such knowledge is crucial for team effectiveness because it allows team members to tailor their behavior in accordance with what they expect their teammates to do. The more knowledge team members have about one another (and the more accurate that information is), the more efficient and automatic this process can be. – The Influence of Shared Mental Models on Team Process and Performance

Feynman technique for learning



Feynman analysis

Explain it like you were 12. How can you improve it

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