"O my soul, do not aspire to immortal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible." -Pindar
Respice post te! Hominem te esse memento! Memento mori! Translation: “Look behind you! Remember that you are but a man! Remember that you will die!”
If you set your desire on philosophy you must at once prepare to meet with ridicule and the jeers of many who will say, 'Here he is again, turned philosopher. Where has he got these proud looks?' Nay, put on no proud looks, but hold fast to what seems best to you, in confidence that God has set you at this post. And remember that if you abide where you are, those who first laugh at you will one day admire you, and that if you give way to them, you will get doubly laughed at.
On no occasion call yourself a philosopher, nor talk at large of your principles among the multitude, but act on your principles. For instance, at a banquet do not say how one ought to eat, but eat as you ought. Remember that Socrates had so completely got rid of the thought of display that when men came and wanted an introduction to philosophers he took them to be introduced; so patient of neglect was he. And if a discussion arise among the multitude on some principle, keep silent for the most part; for you are in great danger of blurting out some undigested thought. And when some one says to you, 'You know nothing', and you do not let it provoke you, then know that you are really on the right road. For sheep do not bring grass to their shepherds and show them how much they have eaten, but they digest their fodder and then produce it in the form of wool and milk. Do the same yourself; instead of displaying your principles to the multitude, show them the results of the principles you have digested.
Whatever principles you put before you, hold fast to them as laws which it will be impious to transgress. But pay no heed to what any one says of you; for this is something beyond your own control. -The Manual [Enchiridion] Of Epictetus
Rehearse this thought every day, that you may be able to depart from life contentedly; for many men clutch and cling to life, even as those who are carried down a rushing stream clutch and cling to briars and sharp rocks. - Letters from a Stoic, Seneca
If powerful assholes don’t find you “arrogant,” it means you are doing something wrong. - The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms
What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. All creative work builds on what came before. Nothing is completely original. - Steal Like an Artist
Collect Your Mistakes / Gaps in Knowledge
- Log every mistake you made
- Log gaps in your knowledge
- Log potential future issues that you will face
- It is better to make mistakes and learn upon those.
- Mistakes are gaps are one part of advancing, the second part is figuring out the gap in knowledge.
“Steal from anywhere that resonates with inspiration or fuels your imagination. Devour old films, new films, music, books, paintings, photographs, poems, dreams, random conversations, architecture, bridges, street signs, trees, clouds, bodies of water, light and shadows. Select only things to steal from that speak directly to your soul. If you do this, your work (and theft) will be authentic.” —Jim Jarmusch
You have to be curious about the world in which you live. Look things up. Chase down every reference. Go deeper than anybody else—that’s how you’ll get ahead.
See something worth stealing? Put it in the swipe file. Need a little inspiration? Open up the swipe file.
What to copy is a little bit trickier. Don’t just steal the style, steal the thinking behind the style. You don’t want to look like your heroes, you want to see like your heroes. - Steal like an Artist
There is nothing quite like ignorance combined with a driving need to succeed to force rapid learning. - Creativity, Inc.
One of the weaknesses of young, highly educated people today—whether in business, medicine, or government—is that they are satisfied to be versed in one narrow specialty and affect a contempt for the other areas. One need not know in detail what to do with “human relations” as an accountant, or how to promote a new branded product if an engineer. But one has a responsibility to know at least what these areas are about, why they are around, and what they are trying to do. - Effective Executive
- Exercise: Creates new neurons for long term learning
- Travel: Creates new experiences that leads to better processing.
- Certain books don’t need to be finished. Most of the time if you can get what you want out of 50% or by skimming the book then you should be good.
- Other books should be savored like a delicious meal.
- Figure out what level a book is before reading it by skimming it.
- Sometimes you may be reading a book that just covers something someone else covers and it isn’t that important to get through the whole thing.
- When reading a book outline it. Then figure out which chapters you will focus your energy on.
- This will help focus your energy on the relevant chapters. You can skim the rest.
- Have a list of books and content that you will skim:
- Pop psych
- Current events
- Pop business
Systems Thinking / First Principle
- Everything works in systems and as feedback loops.
- Understanding a system is to take the whole, and keep breaking it into individual parts, and deciding how far you want to break it apart.
- This results in learning to happen in layers.
- This means that each layer, adds another dimension.
- So when learning break things into different levels and layers and remove preconceived notions.
- Einstellung - being blocked by thinking about a problem in the wrong way.
Principles By Ray Dalio
- There are multiple levels for all subjects.
- Be aware on what level you are examining a given subject
- Consciously examine levels rather than see subjects as undifferentiated pits of facts that can be browsed randomly.
Fixed Mindset vs Growth MindseT
- Everything we do in life we have a combination of two mindsets called the fixed mindset and growth mindset
- You believe in innate ability and intelligence
- If things go south you break down
- You believe intelligence is innate and you don’t think putting effort is worth it.
- You do deliberate practice on the problems you don’t understand until you understand it
- You are looking to grow now necessarily be big.
- You expand and stretch your skills
- You exert a lot of effort
- Tend to blame other people
- Tend to take it to heart and don’t grow from it
- You use it as a lesson
- You try growing from it
- Tend to have hero worships, or power of a few heros who provide all the value
- Mistakes are punished
- Setup systems where teams are rewarded as a whole not individuals
- Mistakes are used as a mechanism for learning
- See relationships as people are what they are and can’t change
- Take failure as an innate characteristic of the other person
- See relationships as growth opportunities for pushing and making each other better
- Take failures as a learning lesson to make and improve on self.
- Communicate and put out into open wants, and goals
Diffused vs Focused
- The harder you push your brain to come up with something creative, the less creative your ideas will be.
- Once you are distracted from the problem at hand, the diffuse mode has access and can begin pinging about in its big-picture way to settle on a solution. - Mind for Numbers
Brain on Alcohol
Brain on Coffee
- Big Picture
- Like trying to see the elephant
- Need to see how things fit into the whole and where each part goes
- not pigeon holed
- Like seeing individual pieces of an elephant
- Seeing the individual component and what it provides
- Flow State Task / Scheduled
Attaining the State
- take a nap but wake up right before getting to sleep
- shower / bath
- walk / exercise
- booze and chat
- deep focused concentration for up to an hour on just the thing without distractions
- deliberate practice
- If you are stuck on a problem, then your brain needs to head back to a diffused state
- Take a walk, sleep, etc. to enter this state.
- Plan your day around these two states of mind.
- Start with Diffused to Organize
- Afternoon of Focused
- Evening of Diffused
- To get good you need to practice certain parts more than others.
- Focused practice on the tasks that you are not good at.
- This is not fun. You just have to endure the pain to get to the other side.
- Don’t practice things that you are already good at do things that you suck at.
- Do spaced repetition to go over things to make the connections in your brain stronger on a certain topic.
- When learning something the connections break down over time and become less strong so if you go over something after a certain period of time that connections become strong again.
Three-Stage Model of Skill Aquisition
First Principles / Continuous Improvement
- You must start from First Principles when building something new to figure out how the fuction can be had.
- But from there you have to continuously improve on that.
- However, note the Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
- Sometime it is important to kill the golden goose because there is a new way of doing something.
- In that case it is okay to go back to First Principle to figure out the underlying components of something and start the continuous improvement cycle again.
- Use metaphors to think about problems.
- Understand Lakoffian Metaphors, or put it into simpler terms.
Changing Your Mind
- Not everything you do fits with data.
- It is needed that you stay flexible and are able to change your mind about things.
Aim for Success
- As you learn you may get resistence from other people who may say what you are doing is dumb or stupid.
- Not everyone will support you because of their jealously or inability or their fixed mindset on how things should be done, but this isn’t your concern since you can’t control what other people think.
- Don’t mind them, don’t feel like an imposter, aim higher and farther.
Mental Models are common models from different fields that allow you to make decisions.
Gartner Hype Cycle
- Most technology goes through this.
How to Learn a Subject
Based on this knowledge when you want to learn something and learn it deep you should do the following:
- Pick the subject
- Get a cursory understanding of the subject
- Message Famous People and Talk to Them
- Pick the next layers. Ask a series of questions that you want to answer from the previous layer. This could be the 2-4 topics that interest you about that subject but mostly I’d say use Pareto’s Principle and pick the 20% that will give 80% of the benefit right away.
- Learn each layer by books, media, papers, etc. but have specific deadlines for each since knowledge builds on existing knowledge it may be readily forgotten if the existing knowledge isn’t reaccessed.
- Break each thing into individual chunks. If you are learning a new movement example for Krav Maga move to individual pieces: the feet, hips, hands, the movement of the hips, the movement of the legs, where you are on the floor and where you should be.
- Note the Following:
- Fears (i.e Like the Fear of Formulas)
- Need to do this because certain aspect of learning is expanding your comfort level and to do that you need to understand that you may get overwhelmed and have to note the fear of the unknown so that you can work through it.
- Mental Models of Similar / Adjacent Subjects
- Practice with b in mind.
- Apply the new knowledge immediately to a small project. Make it immediately usable and test this with your own hypothesis.
- This helps you solidify your understanding
- Take what you learned and what you applied and systematize it. Since you applied the learning you have made it your own and that much more influential to yourself.
- Write it down as a checklist
- Create programs that execute what you learn
- Goto 3
- Remember what layer you are in when reading or learning something. If you read a book similar to what someone has already written then you are not going to learn anything.
- Most business books all have similar topics and cover an aspect but think layers. Example of how something could be broken down:
- How does Sales Works?
- Sales Management
Scripts for Cold Calling
- How to Reach People
- Behavioral Economics
- Closing a Sale
- Mental Model: improv is similar to sales power dynamics
The First 20 Hours: How to Learn Anything
- Sufficient not great, develop capacity not mastery
- Rapid Skill Acquisition
- Deconstructing a skill to individual subskills
- Learn enough about each subskill to practice intelligently and self-correct during practice
- Removing physical, mental, and emtional barriers that get in the way of practice
- Practicing the most important subskills for at least twenty hours
- Ten Principles
- Chose a lovable project
- Focus your energy on one skill at a time
- Define your target performace level
- Deconstruct the skill into subskills
- Obtain critical tools
- Eliminate barriers to practice
- Make dedicated time for practice
- Create fast feedback loops
- Figure out how you are performing quickly
- Practice by the clock in short bursts
- Emphasize quantity and speed.
- Ten Principles of Effective Learning
- Research the skill and related topics
- Pick up the patterns that appear in multiple places, those are important.
- Jump in over your head
- Identify mental models and mental hooks
- Imagine the opposite of waht you want.
- Think of the exact opposite of what would happen. If something went wrong. Inversion. Like if you went hunting. You could jam your gun, the animal could charge you, you don’t kill the animal quickly enough, you could get lost. What would you do to prepare for those? That should be what you need to learn.
- Talk to practitioners to set expectations.
- Eliminate distractions in your environment.
- Use spaced repetition and reinforcement for memorization.
- Create scaffolds and checklists
- Make and test predicitions
- Observations - what you currently observing?
- Knowns - what do you know about the topic already?
- Hyopthesis - what do you think will improve your performance?
- Tests - what are you going to try next?
- Honor your biology.
- Motor skill functions need both practice and sleep to learn
Postulates / Learning Fast #postulates
What is it that I already know?
- Move Medium Posts
- Move Journal Entries
- Book Reviews (This should go for each section as well)
- Show Book
Learn: How do I learn things quickly so I can attain new skills?
- First 20 Hours
- Learn: How to read faster?
- Learn: Skimming
- 10 Days to Reading Faster
- Learn: Deep Reading
- How to Read a Book
- Learn: Who were high performers in their fields who started humbly?
- Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman
- Charlie Munger
- Learn: How do I improve my memory to help me with making faster decisions?
- The Memory Book: The Classic Guide to Improving Your Memory at Work, at School, and at Play
- Make it Stick
- Unlimited Memory
- Learn: How do I learn a language quickly?
- Fluent Forever
- Learn: How do you learn and use a new language fast?
- Common Phrases
- Common Sentences
- Learn: How do I explain things simply?
- Learn: How can I apply metaphors more directly?
- Learn: What are the things I want to do with an improved learning?
- The Well-Educated Mind: A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had
- Recite poetry
- Learn: How do you do team learning?
- Learn: How do mental models influence learning?
- Superthinking: Upgrade Your Reasoning and Make Better Decisions with Mental Models: Gabriel Weinberg, Lauren McCann: 9780525533580: Amazon.com: Books
- The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge
- Seeking Wisdom by Peter Bevelin
- Poor Charlie's Almanack by Charles Munger
- Philosophy / Classics
- [ ] Letters from a Stoic
- Nicomachean Ethics
- [ ] The Hero with a Thousand Faces
- [ ] Meditations
- [ ] Human, All too human
- [ ] History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides
- How do I build more Mental Models?
- [ ] Feynman
- What is the fundamentals of Physics?
- Areas I want to focus
How to create a effective high power solar power system
- Natural Selection
- [ ] Origin of Species
- [ ] Guns, Gems and Steel
- [ ] Orientalism
- [ ] Fooled By Randomness
- [ ] Home Deus
- Systems Thinking
- How do you break apart problems into components and attack them individually?
- [ ] Poor Charlie’s Almanac
- [ ] The Fifth Discipline
- [ ] Principles
- [ ] Not For Bread Alone
- [ ] Thinking in Systems
- [ ] Out of the Crisis
- [ ] Fifth Discipline
- [ ] The Toyota Way
- [ ] Toyota Production Systems
- Stay Calm during stress otherwise you will be using your energy unwisely
- Limit Caffeine as it causes adrenaline which puts additional stressors in the system.
- Get a lot of sleep
- Take notes of your negative talk
- Fear is needed as a natural occurance
- Learn: What is the fear reaction?
- Gift of Fear
- Be unstoppable
- Learn: What are my reactions when I find fear?
- Learn: How do I manage stress?
- Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers
- Learn: People who lived in fear and did stuff anyways?
- How do you stay unwavered when you have fear?
- No easy day
- Learn: How does sleep affect learning?
- Why We Sleep
- Learn: How to sleep on a more regular schedule?
- Do: Sleep by 11pm
- Try sleep to adjust to 11pm.
- Move to a sleep
- Learn: How do I effectively do deliberate practice?
- Flow, Csikszentmihalyi
- High Performance Habits: How Extraordinary People Become That Way
- Learn: How does food affect learning?
- Learn: How does exercise affect learning?
- Bigger Leaner Stronger: The Simple Science of Building the Ultimate Male Body
- High-Performance Training for Sports
- University of California Los Angeles, (June 4, 2014), "Poor health, lifestyle factors linked to memory complaints, even among younger adults," Medical Press.
- Why is Exercise Good?
- What are different types of exercises?
- The 4 hour body
- How does the body adapt to stress?
- Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers
Learn, Do, Advance, Iterate
- Each learning can have parent and children learning
- This system treats each invocation and learning as an update to the whole system
- A big learning project should be broken down by first principle into individual sublearnings and depth first adaptation should happen.
- Don’t treat projects as projects treat them as learnings. Each learning creates something new. But each learning is broken down into smaller tasks.
- Eat or be eaten.
- As you learn and do you may get resistance from other people who may say what you are doing is dumb or stupid or try to thwart you.
- It is important that you realize this and prevent those people from holding you back.
- The most important person who may be holding you back is yourself.
- Have high standards for yourself and others, but make sure that you have a path to get to those high standards.
- Figure out where people are and get them to aim higher.
- Every learning must have a deadline, things without deadlines will be endless and pointless so we need deadlines to focus on what is important to learn and do. If you don’t have a timeframe you can end up learning forever, but the goal is to learn and do and for that you need timeframes.
- As you move quicker through this loop they increase to create new feedback loops in a tree like function. Some of the feedbacks loops fail but overall the experiments lead to a 2^n growth. The problem being it takes a lot of effort to change these feedback cycles as they get to a maxima of efficiency. Examples include Facebook and google being thrown into promoting bad govts etc.
- Practice Kaizen
- Constantly improve over time making small changes to be better. Those small changes affect things over time.
- Treat your growth in terms of Compounded Interest. You want to be 1% better everyday.
- $$P[(1+i)^n -1]$$
- So if you get better everyday you get 37% better from where you are now.
- If you look at the growth you will notice that just getting better for 100 days will make you 2.7% better, 200 → 7.3%, 300 → 19.8%. The more consistent you are the better that compounding makes you.
- Try getting 1% better everyday. Try to attain good habits. Even if you fail attempt to get back into the grove of things by working on them. Small changes over time cascade into bigger changes.
1% Every Day
-1% Every Day
- I learn by going where I have to go. -Fortune Cookie
- As you move through life your priorities and projects change and what mattered before has less importance now.
- However, at any point in life you must constantly be improving: for yourself, your spouse/partner, your friends and family, society.
- Pick projects that are worthwhile and push your limit and learn them.
- Create mental models from different subjects so that each new thing you learn becomes that much easier.
- Learning should stretch you in someway. Shouldn’t be comfortable but there
- Should be some fear, no fear no growth
- Time bound
- Certain things need to be learned now and other things can wait years.
- Prioritize by time
- Before you start learning make an outline of what you know.
- As you start learning fill in the gaps and create the other parts you don’t know.
- Before you start a project write a short essay describing the vision for learning the subject. It should answer the following:
- What you want to learn?
- What specific things you want to learn about the subject?
- How learning this will create leverage for you in terms of personal life, business, etc?
- How will you apply this knowledge into the world?
- What a good metric for successfully learning this subject looks like?
- Know your style of learning.
- Are you a reader, watcher, writer, listener?
- Each style requires a different paradigm or medium that you should use.
- Just as eating cow meat doesn’t turn you into a cow, studying philosophy doesn’t make you wiser.
- - The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms
- Learning for the sake of learning won’t fulfill you.
- You must apply your knowledge to the real world.
- What you learn on paper and on the screen won’t be much benefit if you don’t bring it into the world.
- A lot of mental anguish is having learned but never getting the chance to apply.
- More education will not bring you joy if you can’t apply what you have learned.
- Figure out how to apply what you learned: teach it, write about it, code it, make it, build it.
- Systematize it. Figure out the patterns and codify those patterns.
- If you do something once it is okay to do it manually
- If you do it n times then you need to come up with a system a checklist or automation that makes it so you don’t have to think about it when doing the task.
- When Doing Things You can follow the OODA loop or any other method for rapidly learning and improving on something.
- The Do part can take hours or years, it is dependent on the level of mastery you want to achieve.
- But when Doing, you want to split what you want into individual cycles that form a chunks using First Principles / Continuous Improvement
- Do a project
- Update procedures to try out an experiment.
- Somehow use the learning to change behavior.
- These are the individual tasks that you may track in a system like jira
- Deliberate practice to get better
- Unlearning is just as important as learning, when you learn something you will find things that no longer fit and you have to unlearn these things.
- Learn broadly but do sparingly
- It makes sense to learn something to understand how it works but it usually makes sense to have others do the actual task unless the goal is to do this professionally.
- This comes down to energy and time: Can’t do everything well and we need to focus on the few things that will give us the most benefit and most leverage.
- When you learn something you understand better what someone can do and holes in your knowledge if they are good and can explain the things that you have missed.
- How do you take what you learned and create leverage in terms of what you want to achieve. This is a big part of learning is you have to have it create leverage in other parts of what you do. This leverage should compound the more you do it.
- Learning is about creating leverage in a certain area.
- Doing something requires a trade off from something else. So make sure you want to actively Pursue this as part of your long term goals
- “Burn the Ships” -Alexander the Great’s orders to his troops upon reaching Asia Minor
- If want to advance you need to commit to the change, with full force.
- This will force an outcome
- And will surface the mistakes and unintended consequences.
- What the obstacles are in your way
- If you can’t advance then figure out what skin in the game you will put to advance.
- Sometimes, to advance you have to give it all up.
- Don’t make a backup plan, unless you absolutely need to or it is part of your job to do so
- When you advance also note if it is going toward your goals and vision of your life.
- No need to advance toward something that won’t bring you happiness.
- Stretch Yourself
- When advancing you will run into mistakes these need to be kept somewhere as these are learning points to advance.
- Course Correct. What knowledge are you missing?
- Every quarter figure out how to level up your life. You need to figure out how to advance and improve.
- Plan for where you want to be and work backwards
Most zealously I seek for erudition: Much do I know—but to know all is my ambition. - Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
- Use the outcomes to iterate the learning
- The learn loop is a part of a tree.
- Figure out the next learn steps based on your learning
- The outcomes may affect other areas create learn cycles there
- The outcome may also kill off some leafs and branches.
- Note: Evolution has consequences. What you do and advance to can affect you or your organization. Think of how different a gorilla and human are, both similar DNA but completely different outcome.
- You can’t do everything, so do you want to advance at a particular juncture?
- In business hiring someone can be a way to create a more effective learning instead of you doing it yourself.
- Figure out what the next difficult challenge is.
- How can you broaden your horizon, do even more difficult thing than before?
- Be weary of moving laterally in a project, career, etc.
- Figure out what the obstacles are
- Figure out who is putting roadblocks in your way to achieve the next steps.
- You may have to address this issue.
- All skills are a series of levels, and each skill is a series of subskills, and so forth.
- How can you level up and down on each of these?
- Go back to Learn, with a larger goal or action.
- If you stumble figure out where you stumbled, figure out how to correct or fix that mistake.
- Sometimes you have to stop the iteration as it hits its logical end.
- We may be good workers in the field of choice we choose to be in but we struggle with helping or affecting the bigger picture.
- At some point you realize that you want something more and you don’t have the tools to do it.
- The destination is never as fun as the journey.
- Once we arrive our brains lose interest and we are back to our baseline happiness.
- So it is better to constantly evolve, as that is the only thing that is worth anything.
- A person who has stopped evolving is already dead, they just don’t know it yet.
- What they are now would be no different from what they are the moment they die.
- I thought that there were certain things I would always be interested in and though that is true to a certain extent I already realized that I needed a general framework for things I don’t know I will be interested in, things I want to like but have no idea how.
- After reading a bunch over what other people have tried to achieve, what their goals were and how they did it, it seems all people go through a certain trajectory.
- Learn and Do
- We learn something and do it, that is what school teaches us.
- However, what most of us don’t do is advance. When we “Do” we get stuck or move laterally. While this is all good and well, it is easy to get bored and disoriented when all we are doing is moving laterally through life.
- So we need a new framework for learning.
- Learn, Do, Advance, Iterate
- We want to get a new job, want to learn a new skillset, want to move our life and relationships in a new directions. First we need to learn and understand what it is that we are even asking and get an understanding.
- We then need to make small adjustments to test out our hypothesis and iterate until we feel comfortable with this new learning, but with an end date in mind. We can’t be stuck in the same tasks forever.
- We then need to commit and advance our position, this means going from that which is comfortable to that which is uncomfortable. This may mean taking a job that has more responsibility, starting a company, adjusting or leaving relationships with people who are holding you back, and forcing new outcomes.
- When you commit and advance you have a whole new set of mistakes, and outcomes that you have to learn from. This should set a trigger of a new tree to learning.
- What is interesting about this framework is that it works for both individuals and teams.
- It depends on how you handle the learning.
- When starting something ask what other thing it will take away from
Figure out exactly what your success looks like for learning? What would you consider success when you learn something?
Do basic research on the field
Find Basic Books on the Topic
Figure out what is needed to learn at 20% that gives 80% of the value
Figure out exactly what is needed to get to that 20% percent
Find the books and information to rapidly learn that 20%
Do the tasks that are needed for that 20%
See if you can improve you want to advance to become more of an expert
Notes from Fluent Forever
Learn the sound of the language
Memorize using pictures and words
Then memorize by making the words meaningful to you
Rote memorization doesn’t work. Use spaces repetition.
After reading something, recall it. And recall it 3 times. When you test your brain with recall it gets a positive boost when it is right. Test immediately after reading.
Spaced Repetition so your brain has time to recall
When we forget something we are essentially starting from scratch so use that time to rebuild a new connection with words, pictures and sounds and your own meaning.
Learn the matching sound pairs of a launguage. Learn the sounds first. By learning the sounds you train your brain to understand what combinations work and you are not doing twice the work that you need to do. You just do the work once
Learn the International Phonetic Alphabet to learn sounds and how to pronounce correctly.
If you are having trouble with a word start from the end and work backward to the beginning. Backchaining
Learn the sounds of the language and the correct way to made the sounds first. Learn how to place your mouth so that you are more effective in saying the words right. Learn this first and the best.
There are about a 1000 words that are the most effective to start speaking. These words enable you to move to higher level concepts. 80/20 rule applied here